April 11-14, 2007
San Francisco, California

Learning@Whitney: Developing A Useful Teaching Tool

Melanie Adsit, Dina Helal, Jane Royal, Whitney Museum of American Art; Chuck Barger, Interactive Knowledge, Inc., USA


Learning@Whitney is the Whitney Museum's educational resource for teachers, teens, and families. This Web site offers a framework to explore key works from the Whitney's collection of twentieth and twenty-first century American art, and a variety of tools through which to interact with and explore these images as primary resources for teaching and learning.

A key objective in developing this educational Web site was to provide strategies and tools that assist teachers in all subject areas to expand their use and integration of images in the classroom, and to make concrete connections between the Whitney's resources, current pedagogical directives, and the process by which they design curriculum. The creation of the Learning@Whitney site also afforded a unique opportunity to rethink the ways in which images might be incorporated as elements of learning and teaching experiences. The culmination of this inquiry process led to the design and development of an interactive tool called Collect Art. With this tool, site users create collections of Whitney images as well as complementary slide shows that can include text, sounds, Compare and Contrast pairings, and the ability to then share their work with others.

This mini-workshop will examine the development and integration of the Collect Art tool into the larger Learning@Whitney site design from a practical, pedagogical, and technical perspective. In addition to theoretical perspectives, examples of how teachers have successfully integrated their collections into specific classroom lessons and activities will be shown.

Keywords: education, art, images, schools, teachers, collections


Learning@Whitney is the Whitney Museum's educational Web site for teachers, teens, children, families, and interested visitors. Launched in September 2006, the Web site is comprised of four main components:

The key objectives in developing this educational Web site were to provide strategies and tools that could facilitate the use and integration of images into school classrooms, and to make concrete connections between the Whitney's resources, current pedagogical directives, and the process by which teachers design curriculum.

Figure 1

Fig 1: The Home Page of Learning@Whitney (

Site Planning: A Pedagogical Perspective

A constant challenge in art museum education is how to bridge the gap, the theory-practice divide between the museum and the classroom. Research over the past twenty years has explored how people learn in the museum environment, and various theories that articulate and promote meaningful learning experiences for museum visitors of all ages have emerged. Museums have historically presented visitors with opportunities to explore specific ideas and broad concepts through non-traditional and multi-modal approaches to learning, successfully engaging what cognition and education theorist Howard Gardner referred to as "multiple intelligences" (Gardner 1983). Recently, constructivist and literary learning theories have influenced art museum education, broadening the choices and enabling museum educators to develop teaching strategies that align with current K-12 pedagogical approaches. Museum outreach programs, school partnerships, and professional development for K-12 educators have also had significant impact on the integration of art in K-12 teaching. In the absence of regular field trips or professional development workshops, the translation of museum teaching strategies into the K-12 classroom is an ongoing challenge (Mayer 2005). The Learning@Whitney Web site presented an opportunity to provide resources and strategies that would support subject area teachers who want to use works of art in their classroom teaching. In planning the Web site, we wanted to offer multiple avenues for teachers and students to use Whitney images in a variety of interdisciplinary ways by demonstrating how works of art could be integrated in diverse subject areas, including language arts, humanities, American history, and social studies, as well as art.

The Whitney's K-12 education programs focus on developing visual literacy and critical thinking skills through object-centered, inquiry-based learning strategies that are derived from constructivist learning theories – developing students' understanding by helping them reflect on their own cognitive processes. Whitney educators begin with what students already know, help them brainstorm, and build on their knowledge and understanding so that works of art become relevant to them. Through these authentic cognitive activities and exercises, we expect that students will continue to make sense of new information or experiences as they relate to each individual learner. We also draw on Lev Semenovick Vygotsky's concept of the social aspects of learning and the ways in which scaffolding can be employed as a teaching strategy to support student learning (Vygotsky 1978). During a discussion, the teacher acts as a support and guide to the students' work as they move through the proximal zone of development and close the gap between their ability to engage with new material and the limitations of their developmental level. Scaffolding may include questions, cues, and prompts that facilitate students' ability to build on prior knowledge and internalize new information (Van Der Stuyf, 2002). These teaching strategies are common to the art museum and the school classroom. Rather than textual or mathematical evidence, we explore visual evidence as a means to building understanding and to articulating ideas and opinions.

Through careful looking, discussion, questioning on various levels, interpretation, and synthesis, the use of images for individual and group learning stimulates inquiry, creativity, and higher order thinking. Students engaged in object– or image-centered inquiry gain skills that can be applied to understanding written texts in any subject. A recent three-year study by the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum reinforces the premise that learning about art has a significant, positive impact on students' literacy, critical thinking, and academic performance. (Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum/Randi Korn & Associates, Inc. 2005)

The integration of images into classroom teaching is explored in depth at the Whitney's professional development workshops held during the school year, and at Connecting Collections: Integrating Modern and Contemporary Art into the Classroom, an annual summer institute for teachers presented by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Museum of Modern Art, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, and the Whitney Museum of American Art. At the weeklong institute, teachers explore and practice thematic teaching strategies – careful selection and sequencing of images and inquiry-based pedagogy – that facilitate learning with images as primary documents. They also learn how contextual information can be thoughtfully integrated into an inquiry-based discussion as a means to deepening student understanding.

Primary source materials that have traditionally been used in core subject areas such as history include documents, maps, manuscripts, photographs, and political cartoons. With the increasing use of digital images in the classroom and attention paid to the skills needed to read, interpret, and present images, works of art have been given more serious consideration as primary resources that convey powerful, firsthand evidence of a time period or topic. The Whitney's collection is comprised of twentieth and twenty-first century American art. Although this is a narrow spectrum in the realm of art history, many works of art in the collection address subjects, events, and issues in America's past and can be studied from both historical and contemporary perspectives. Current thinking about how children learn suggests that when teaching new material, to fully engage students with unfamiliar information, connections to concepts that are already familiar to the students must be made. In other words, providing something familiar to which the students can compare this new information helps them process and internalize it. This approach is effective because children see through a contemporary lens and have a better understanding of their own time period than the past (Bransford, Brown, Cocking, 1999).

The creation of the Learning@Whitney site presented a unique opportunity to think carefully about the ways museum and school pedagogies complement each other, and how images could be incorporated into meaningful learning experiences as primary source documents rather than as illustrations or representations of a text or an idea. Successful implementation of classroom technology is more likely to occur when teachers view technology as the means to an end rather than an end in itself, when they see a connection between technology and the curriculum, and when they find compatibility with their pedagogical beliefs (Zhao, Pugh, Sheldon, Byers 2002). The challenges we faced were how to infuse and model our discussion-based teaching methodologies in the content and functionality of the site, and how to address some of the issues that teachers come up against regarding integration of images and technology in the classroom.

In 2004-05, students from the Harvard Graduate School of Education conducted a summative evaluation with a pilot version of the teacher section of Learning@Whitney. They gathered extensive feedback from 80 junior high school teachers (grades 5-8) in all subject areas nationwide, including language arts, social studies, math, and science. Whitney education staff also participated in a project with ARTstor and American history teachers at Trinity School, a private school on the upper west side of Manhattan, to create a thematic unit for seventh grade students using the visual resources of both the Museum and ARTstor as well as ARTstor's on-line image collecting and viewing tool.

These projects provided us with valuable information that informed the development of Learning@Whitney. We learned that teachers wanted images, information, and interactivity, and that they were more interested in content than in bells and whistles. They preferred access to images and information in multiple ways, with a high degree of flexibility in how they could use the materials. The content needed to be versatile, sortable, and printable. Teachers also wanted information that placed a work of art in a contextual framework: a social, political, or cultural context related to subject areas and topics in school curriculum. In addition, we learned that although access to computers in the classroom or time in the computer lab was increasing in schools, teachers' own comfort levels using images, the Internet, and technology in general determined the Web site's use and effectiveness within a specific curriculum. A commissioned private report prepared for the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation about the ARTstor project revealed that however comprehensive, no single on-line collection of images can serve all K-12 curriculum needs and requirements. Teachers prefer to "cherry pick' and use visual images collected from various sources that they can adapt to their specific classroom needs. (Wetterlund, 2005) For this purpose, teachers may use applications that they are familiar with, such as PowerPoint™ or iPhoto™, where they and their students can add and organize their own collections of images.

Site Development: A Technical Perspective

We worked with Interactive Knowledge, (IK), a Web production team based in Charlotte, North Carolina, to plan and design the Web site. On a limited budget, we had a tall order for IK, and the site planning and development became a collaborative effort. IK understood the complexity of creating a site that would be useful, sustainable, accessible, and user-friendly for our diverse target audiences – teachers, teens, families, and children. Our Whitney Web team included three local school teachers whose subject areas were art, social studies, and American history. They offered valuable suggestions for the development and organization of the site's resources.

As Learning@Whitney is part of the Museum's Web site (, we needed an overall design and look/feel that harmonized with the Museum's visual identity. For each section we wanted home pages that appealed to our diverse audiences, and we needed a backend interface that was completely reliable and user-friendly for museum staff to continue adding information after the site went on-line. We needed to organize our resources for optimal use in the classroom, computer lab, and home, and account for varying comfort levels with access to, and differences in technology. We also needed the content delivered in compelling and intuitive ways to keep visitors engaged and returning to the site, and we wanted to ensure that the site and its features could be accessible and functional on different interfaces and browsers. We had to include time in the development process to test a prototype of the site with focus groups and make modifications in response to their feedback. We also required the ability to implement Web site evaluation, modification, and maintenance after the Web site was launched.

IK and the Whitney team spent several months planning how to tailor the interface and content, determining trade-offs and compromises. We approached the planning phase of Learning@Whitney with serious deliberation, since the technical aspects of developing the site were likely to become complex. The most important goal in the planning process was to create a simple interface that would appeal to the diverse target audiences that the site is designed to reach. Because there are a number of different activities that visitors to the site can interact with, creating a consistent interface was critical to overall usability. We did a survey with teachers to find out if they used Flash in schools and if so, which version. In 2005, most were using Flash 7. Although Flash is used for the more complex interactive activities in the Collect Art section, the majority of the site is built in html in order to increase its accessibility. The visual design is intentionally minimal to ensure that the art images are the most prominent component of the site.

Learning@Whitney is a dynamic site with all of the images and most of the content delivered from a database. The site is designed so that an unlimited number of images can be stored and displayed. Additional content, including audio, video, and more supporting images, will be added as the site expands in the coming years. Whitney staff manages the database and can continue to add, edit, and delete content as needed. While the dynamic nature of the site may have limited some aspects of the design, the payoff in terms of creating a potentially massive site was worth the few compromises made in the visual and interactive design.

Site Features


The Gallery is the Web site's core resource for all users. It is the key area where we could model our teaching methodologies and introduce specific strategies for teachers to use with the content in the classroom. Currently comprised of just over 100 digital images, the Gallery will expand over time with the addition of approximately 25 images each year. In order to make the Gallery useful for teachers and students, we needed to provide a structure that could help teachers to use their time efficiently by guiding them directly to the content and ways to sort, print, and adapt the materials for classroom teaching.

Figure 2

Fig. 2: Gallery (

K-12 educators who teach subject areas other than art do not necessarily know how works of art might be successfully used to support their curriculum. They may need 'hooks' or familiar structures to help them process the information quickly and make decisions about the relevance of the resources they are reviewing. Thematic groupings provide an organizational logic and visual unity (Yenawine, 2002). This can be a catalyst for recognition and understanding of a particular subject or topic of discourse. The Web site provides the facility to sort the images in multiple ways so that groups of images can be defined not only by art categories, but also by themes and topics within the scope of school curriculum. The activity of sorting images and making decisions conveys ideas about thematic teaching, and by helping to define the choices, the 'big ideas' become more accessible to teachers.

Figure 3

Fig 3: Gallery, Theme Sort Option (detail)

Whitney educators spent months looking at the images in the Gallery and matching them with themes that address both the images and school curriculum studies. These include identity, environment, community, and immigration. Currently there are 14 themes on the Web site. Each image is connected to one or more themes. When Theme is selected from the menu, a short description of the theme appears with a set of thumbnail images of related works. The Gallery can also be sorted by decade and historical era or event, allowing teachers to quickly identify images that are relevant to specific curricular topics. In the Research section, all of the themes with the related Gallery images appear in one place. The lessons in this section are also based on the themes and on sequences of five images – the maximum that a teacher might use in one 45-50 minute classroom session. The lessons were written by classroom teachers who made selections and sequences from groups of images associated with the themes.

To address often limited access to computers and the Internet in schools, we made all text and images on the Web site printable in various formats and sizes. Users can select which information to print, making it easier for teachers to create classroom handouts with part of the text rather than all of the information. The Research section provides information on the Museum's teaching methodology, and strategies to help teachers in all subject areas make concrete connections between the Whitney's resources and the ways in which they design curriculum.

Collect Art tool

Collecting is an educational activity that can inspire in-depth study and draw on observation, comparison, critical thinking, and visual literacy skills. Making a collection of images can enhance intuitive and experiential learning as well as experimentation, risk-taking and problem solving, all during a mode of play (Jenkins et al, 2006). Research into inquiry-based learning and the development of thinking skills at Harvard Project Zero has found that choice-making encourages museum visitors to reflect on their individual preferences, styles, and experiences, and helps create a mindset for active learning and high-level cognitive experiences such as exploring relationships, constructing explanations, formulating and testing hypotheses, solving problems, probing assumptions, and exploring new perspectives (Tishman, 1999). The activity of collecting art also reflects the curatorial process: selecting, juxtaposing, and writing about works of art. Although there was a strong possibility that teachers and students would use other ways of collecting images from different sources, we wanted to provide a fun, creative tool for users to explore and organize images of art in the Whitney's collection.

In Collect Art, users can compile and save their own customized sets of images from the Gallery. The activity begins as a type of 'shopping cart' feature where users click on a + sign to add images to their collection. Then users can go to Play with Collection where they can organize their collections of images, add text and sound, and share or e-mail their collections as a slideshow or print-out 'catalogue.'

Figure 4

Fig 4: Collect Art, Play with Collection

Arranging images in a sequence that progresses from concrete (simple) to abstract (complex) can enhance and deepen student understanding of a developing theme. Concrete images include those with clearer visual clues and less density of content, and therefore, fewer possible meanings. Complex images contain more ambiguity of meaning, and more meaning that is conveyed through style and materials than through iconography or subject. The images may also contain symbolism and metaphor (Yenawine 2002). Some works of art are more visually and conceptually descriptive than others. When images are thoughtfully sequenced, teachers can begin with students' definitions and opinions, and build from simple to complex or concrete to abstract ideas. Sequencing then becomes part of scaffolding, used to deepen student understanding in an incremental way. Descriptions of Whitney educators' approaches to these methodologies and an example of a Gallery tour with teachers can be found in the Research of the Web site.

The functionality of Collect Art aims to model the ways a teacher might create a text-based lesson where reading materials are arranged in a specific order from simple to complex to help students construct meaning. Collect Art also aims to address how a teacher teaches. For example, a teacher might use the same image to scaffold or build on students' knowledge, discuss or explain different issues, or refer back to a previously explored image. The Play with Collection space provides users with the ability to collect and arrange images and text in any order or sequence, to make duplicate images and add them anywhere in a collection, to access and import the information related to any work of art in the Gallery, and to add questions or annotations associated with single or multiple images.

Figure 5

Fig 5: Collect Art, Compare and Contrast

Teachers and students often use comparison to talk about certain points or issues in classroom discussions, so we included a compare/contrast feature that allows the user to select two images, place them side by side, and write a comparison. We included an add sound clip feature which allows users to create a mood for a particular work of art or for their entire slide show. All of these elements (collecting and sequencing images, adding text and sound) address multiple learning styles.

Figure 6

Fig 6: Collect Art, Slide Show

We also wanted to provide users with the ability to change, present, and share their work. Users can modify any existing collection, and print, project, or e-mail their collection. For example, a teacher can create an assignment in Collect Art and ask students to create their own collections. If teachers do not have access to computers all the time, they can print out a 'catalogue' version of their collection and give it to students as a classroom handout. Teachers had noted that the specific curriculum changes over time, but certain images are more teachable than others, and they need access to those same images from year to year. Users have access to their saved collections for an extended time period – at least two years. At the end of two years, users will be given the option to save or delete their collections.

Figure 7

Fig 7: Collect Art, Catalogue

In Collect Art, users can transfer images from their slide show into other applications such as PowerPoint™ and iPhoto™. Users can also register for access to high-resolution images in the Gallery. In the Research/How To section of Learning@Whitney, site visitors can find and print instructions on how to create PowerPoint™ presentations, as well as other ways to combine digital images and text.

Site Use: A Practical Perspective

When the Web site was launched, we held a three-day workshop for classroom teachers in August 2006. Whitney education staff provided hands-on instruction for New York City school teachers on how to use the Learning@Whitney Web site and the Collect Art tool. The teachers helped troubleshoot some technical issues and gave us feedback on how they thought the Web site would be useful in the classroom.

"I think the website is useful for all disciplines, art, music, social studies, science, and math. I love the idea that teachers are free to design and play with the images depending on your goal or objective and the level of students you have."

"What worked was the in-depth information on the artists, the art, the issues and references with their subject areas. This information opens up many ways of approaching a collection."

"I liked the organization of context, classroom, etc. The inquiry questions and the information about the images were helpful in trying to decipher how they could be used in the classroom."

"The slideshow feature makes it easy to keep track of images and ideas I might have for my students......As an over prepared teacher I would rarely rely on the web in a lesson, but this feature gives me a chance to easily alter it to PowerPoint™. I also like the (zoom) feature of how you can view the image. I would use that feature directly in my classroom."

During the workshop, teachers were assigned to small groups according to grade level. They worked with Whitney educators to develop a theme applicable to their subject area(s) and selected three images from the Web site that addressed the theme. The participants' assignment was to use the Collect Art tool to create a lesson that they could use in their classrooms. Teachers were asked to sequence the three images they had selected and use one additional image anywhere in their sequence. They were also required to include their goals and objectives for the lesson, brainstorm questions for the theme, and provide at least one comparison of images.

Teachers determined that Collect Art can be used for research, preparing presentations, creating Web-based reference pages, and student assignments. Depending on computer availability and on-line access, teachers can project the slide show or print the catalogue version as a handout for students in class. Students can use Collect Art for in-class assignments and presentations.

Site Use: Case Study

Center School

During the 2006-07 school year, Whitney staff is making site visits to the workshop participants' classrooms to observe how the Web site is being used by teachers and their students. Center School is a public junior high school on the upper west side of Manhattan and serves 5th-8th graders. One workshop participant teaches a computer class for eighteen sixth graders once per week in the computer lab which is equipped with 18 iMacs and broadband Internet access. The students learned how to navigate the Learning@Whitney Web site and spent time looking at the teacher section. Students were asked to choose five images that related to a theme in their social studies class to make a PowerPoint™ presentation. They could also collect images outside of the Learning@Whitney site.

In the introductory session, the teacher discussed four images from the Web site with students to explore big ideas about the French Revolution and connect these ideas and images with issues in contemporary American society such as identity, race, and conflict. In session 2, students were asked to choose five images, rename them, and explain why they chose that title. This was an ongoing activity which changed over time for many of the students as they began to make connections between the issues in their social studies class and the images they chose. Students were then asked to identify the artist, date of the work, and write about why they chose those works of art. In sessions 3-8, students learned how to create PowerPoint™ presentations using images, text, sound, and animation to make presentations with their five selected images.

The teacher said that she sent students to the Teacher section of the Gallery because they felt restricted by the more limited choices in the Kids section. After some initial resistance, students began to understand how to make connections between historical events and the images through their social studies content and by looking at each other's work. For example, students studying the Holocaust saw a relationship between the yellow star worn by the Jews and a yellow star in an image of a mural by artist Sol LeWitt. Most students used images from the Learning@Whitney site, and did not include images from other sources. There were some technical difficulties with Collect Art, so the teacher decided to have students use PowerPoint™ instead. She said that she prefers the more curatorial structure of just using the images on the Web site rather than the ability to add one's own images:

The Collect Art tool is more cerebral than PowerPoint™. It is easier to type text. I can require more from the students if they use the Collect Art tool because they can type into it more easily.

This teacher plans to use the Collect Art feature with her students in the school computer lab during the winter/spring semester.

To date, the Collect Art tool has been used in both expected and unexpected ways. Although some teachers have used Collect Art to plan lessons based on Whitney images or have instructed students to make their own collections, others have not used it in the classroom for a variety of reasons. These include limited or no access to a computer lab or computers while teaching, and decisions to use PowerPoint™ or iPhoto™ for producing presentations and viewing them offline. An elementary school teacher designed a 12-week unit for three fifth-grade classes. Students were divided into groups of four to explore and select five images in the Whitneykids section of the site and make a collection using the Collect Art tool. This teacher assigned a Collect Art user name and password to the groups of students so that both she and they could have access to their collections. She also created handouts for students with step-by-step instructions on how to use the Collect Art tool so that they would have a quick reference for addressing the functionality and more time to focus on the project. Students did have some initial difficulty using Collect Art. For example, one group kept deleting images by mistake, but they were able to troubleshoot and correct their problems. Ultimately, students enjoyed using the Web site and felt that they were successful in collecting and presenting their slideshows to their classmates.

Next steps

At the teacher workshop in August 2006, the participants raised additional issues and offered suggestions that have helped us identify some of the next steps for the Web site. They let us know what features they would need to make Collect Art a more viable classroom tool. For example, in Compare and Contrast they wanted more opportunities for teachable moments, such as the option to include a text box instead of an image in the compare/contrast feature. They can currently add notes spontaneously to a slide show during a class lesson or presentation, but these notes cannot be saved. We also want to offer an easier option for recipients to change a collection after it is e-mailed to them. For example, a teacher may want students to add images and text to a collection, or teachers may want to modify the collection of a colleague to use in their own classrooms.

We recognize the need to provide opportunities for teachers to communicate with colleagues, and we plan to add teacher-contributed lessons created in Collect Art to the Web site in order to help other teachers see how they can integrate Whitney images into their own classroom curricula. We are adding a teacher forum/blog space where teachers will be able to post their collections and exchange opinions about works of art. We will also add more images by artists already represented on the Web site, so that teachers and students can conduct a more in-depth study of a specific artist. As we complete more site visits in 2007, we hope to discover additional ways that teachers and students have used the Learning@Whitney Web site and gather valuable feedback that will inform future site developments.


Special thanks to Whitney staff and museum educators, Interactive Knowledge, Learning@Whitney consultants and evaluators, and the New York City school teachers who are participating in the continuing evaluation of the Web site.


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Cite as:

Adsit, M. et al., "Learning@Whitney: Developing A Useful Teaching Tool" , in J. Trant and D. Bearman (eds.). Museums and the Web 2007: Proceedings, Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatics, published March 1, 2007 Consulted

Editorial Note