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Published: March 15, 2001.


The Importance of Integrity in Virtual Environments : A Discussion of New Approaches to the Web:"Our World-Our Way of Life" Website

Jennifer Baird, Canadian Heritage Information Network (CHIN), Sylvia Borda, Freelance Contractor operating MEDIA-STOP Ltd Lucille Bell, Old Massett Village Council, Canada


The emergence and power of the virtual on-line medium, i.e. the World Wide Web, has created a rush of expectations. The cultural, government and private sectors have hyped the need for an on-line presence, especially where the web is seen as a virtual team building experience that crosses geographical and other boundaries. While there can be few arguments against the potential of the web to offer this experience, the question of web rationale or integrity of representation has only recently come into question.Lucille Bell, Content Coordinator for the Haida First Nations, and Sylvia Grace Borda, Project Manager for the Haida website, comment on their experiences creating, critiquing, and liaising with a consortium of partners which included local museums within British Columbia, Haida First Nations Tribal Council and Peoples, the Canadian government and Expo Pavilion designers.In particular, the speakers will outline the in-depth processes (joint decisions) which developed into and allowed for an open, educational and virtual dialogue across the geographical and cultural boundaries that separated the team members, and the subsequent challenges of representing these boundaries in a unified way (politically and artistically) to an international audience.Areas for discussion will include:1) The selection of a multimedia team. Haida First Nations as content developers, and anthologists/government as web designers. The balance of representation, perception and views. Lucille Bell will offer direct input about her experiences from a Haida First Nations' perspective.2) Critiquing the web site creation process. Particular emphasis will focus on the structure and dynamics of the feedback mechanisms which were put in place during the various stages of production.3) Web viewer engagement - the organizational and web design methods selected in order to represent, for example, the views of Haida First Nations in the areas of song, dance, gaming, and politics. Incorporation of language and design elements for a multi-lingual/multi-cultural audience.

"Canada is home to a wealth of aboriginal cultures..."


So begins the opening phrase of the virtual exhibition " Our World -- Our Way of Life" - a virtual exhibition that presents the perspectives of two diverse aboriginal communities in Canada -- the Inuit and the Haida. The concepts of new media and cultural representation will be discussed in the following presentation in relation to the development of this virtual exhibition ( and the corresponding interactive kiosk which was developed for special presentation in the Canada Pavilion, at Expo2000 (Hanover, Germany).

The Background Story

Jennifer A. Baird, Project Coordinator, Canadian Heritage Information Network (CHIN)

It was the fall of 1997 when I had the pleasure of working with Lucille Bell for the first time. Our collaboration began with the exhibition Haida: Spirits of the Sea ( -- an on-line product which was featured as a kiosk presentation in the Canada Pavilion at Expo'98 (Lisbon, Portugal). The exhibition was co-curated by Lucille Bell (Heritage Resources Officer at Old Massett Village Council) and Nathalie Macfarlane (Director/Curator of the Haida Gwaii Museum) and through the voice of the Haida people tells the story of their relationship to the sea from the past to present, while reflecting the theme of Expo'98 (Oceans: A Heritage for the Future). A contribution in recognition of the United Nations International Decade of the World's Indigenous Peoples (1995-2004), the project was supported by the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND) and received three international awards. Based on the success of this collaboration, a new virtual exhibition was initiated.

It wasn't until the spring of 1999 however, that I finally met Lucille in-person as work began on the on-line exhibition which brings us here today: Our World -- Our Way of Life ( As is often the case with the work done on virtual exhibitions by the Canadian Heritage Information Network (CHIN), the collaboration and the work involved is very real, however, the interactions often only occur on a "virtual" basis (i.e. teleconferences, faxing, phone calls and e-mail).


With the financial support of the Canadian Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND) and CHIN serving as Executive Producer, the objective of this virtual exhibition was threefold. One: to create an educational resource which would celebrate the similarities and differences found within the indigenous communities of Canada; two: to reflect the overall themes of Expo2000, Humankind-Nature-Technology, and the Canada Pavilion in particular, The Spirit of Community; and, three: to provide a forum in which the communities could speak from their own "voice." The path was not a new one, but one which has gained considerable support over the past few years.

Initiatives such as the Task Force Report on Museums and First Peoples (1992) which was created by the Assembly of First Nations and the Canadian Museums Association resulted in the publication, Turning the Page: Forging New Partnerships Between Museums and First Peoples, which contains principles and recommendations in support of the direction taken with this exhibition and its precedent. Further support comes from the findings and recommendations of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1991) and their relative applicability to all governmental departments.

With these objectives in mind, and the receipt by DIAND of expressions of interest from both the Haida and Inuit communities to participate in the project, the project was born.


As previously, it was decided that the main product of the collaboration would consist of an Internet presentation, complemented by an interactive kiosk version to be featured in the Canada Pavilion, where it would also be supported by a complementary physical exhibition. In addition, each aboriginal project-partner was provided with base funding to support the visit of a delegation by their community to Expo2000 and coordinated activities of their choice.

The "Team"-

The Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND)

Once the objectives of the project were established, DIAND recognized the strength of the project and became the primary source of funding for the project. As part of the current direction, DIAND actively strives to promote the aboriginal groups of Canada on both a national and international basis.

In order to coordinate this multi-faceted project, the Canadian Heritage Information Network (CHIN), a Special Operating Agency within the Department of Canadian Heritage, once again reprised the role as executive producer -- one it has performed many times before on similar international initiatives.

In pursuit of its mission and the objectives outlined above, the Haida and Inuit communities were contacted by CHIN to develop the content of a virtual exhibition which would allow them to explore and respect their differences while celebrating the commonalties of their heritage.

CHIN contacted the Heritage Resources Department of the Old Massett Village Council (OMVC) and Inuit Tapirisat of Canada (ITC) to provide the content for the exhibition (i.e. texts, images, audio/video components, and objects for the physical exhibition).

Additionally, two multimedia companies were engaged by CHIN to interpret the content provided by the aboriginal partners into a meaningful website reflecting the objectives of all involved. A site that would be interesting, educational, provocative and as well as containing the touchstones of humanity -- heart and soul.

To this end, Media Stop of Vancouver ( was hired to work with the Haida partner and Strata360 of Montreal ( was hired to work with the Inuit partner in the creation of a cohesive web site that reflected the diversity of their cultures while respecting their shared heritage.

Additionally, eight internships were assigned to the project through CHIN as a Coordinating Partner of the federal Youth Employment Strategy (Young Canada Works program). These internships allowed the aboriginal partners and the multimedia companies to hire qualified graduates to

In addition, CHIN coordinated translation services and provided general coordination, administration of the project.

Finally, it is noted with thanks that the project was also supported by many individuals as well as public and private sector organizations such as the Gwaii Trust Society and the Greater Masset Development Corporation from Haida Gwaii, who supported OMVC directly.

The measure of success of the final product can be measured in many ways. From the collection of web stats and their interpretation to watching a visitor move in rhythm to the music during a visit to the kiosk presentation. The Canadian Heritage Information Network is pleased to have collaborated with the communities on this project and proud of the resulting exhibition.

Our Audience: A Haida Perspective on Web Development

Lucille Bell, Heritage Resource Officer, Old Massett Village Council's Economic Development and Heritage Resources Office, Haida Gwaii

There were many aspects to the Haida participation. First of all, OMVC decided to again partner with the Haida Gwaii Museum at Qay'llnagaay in Skidegate. Between the two Haida communities and organizations, Lucille Bell and Nathalie Macfarlane accessed many resources.

(NB. OMVC is the local government, or band council for the Old Massett community in Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands), British Columbia, Canada. The Heritage department is responsible for outreach cultural projects for the Haida community and for the rest of the world.)

As content providers, Lucille and Nathalie faced the challenge of meeting the Expo2000 themes, CHIN guidelines and multimedia requirements from Media Stop. It was equally important to meet the Haida community's needs to tell our own stories, to represent our culture from a contemporary perspective and to counter stereotypes about aboriginal peoples.

Lucille and Nathalie wrote the storyboards for each section, which were reviewed and supported by the OMVC's Cultural Committee. We took the Expo2000 themes (Humankind-Nature-Technology: The Spirit of Community) and made them our own.

Once the themes were defined, the Haida community was asked for help. Skidegate and Old Massett residents were invited to submit photographs, and to sing Haida songs or provide information in the Haida language.

Haida art is renowned throughout the world and inegral to our culture and livelihood. We were able to tell Haida stories and link them to images of historic and contemporary beautiful pieces of work by Haida artists.

From our experience visiting Expo'98 and visiting other Internet sites, we wanted to ensure that children were a part of our audience. To do this, we selected large and attractive images, and recommended that Media Stop keep the information fun and interactive. Another way to tap into the children's audience was to keep the text simple and short. The First Story is an interactive children's story paralleled with a contemporary totem pole raising. The Haida Games section and the interactive Haida language lesson were also geared towards children.

The Repatriation Story met the "challenges" theme. The story is based on a contemporary community effort to repatriate over 300 Haida human remains from museums around the world. Telling this story was important to the Haida community who believe that our audiences could learn from this injustice and help be a part of the solution for many aboriginal groups.

Offshoots from the Project

The project included more than creating a website and kiosk for Expo. Both Media Stop and Old Massett Village Council received funding to employ and train four youths. OMVC hired a Technical Intern to digitize images and ensure that we submitted our materials to Media Stop in a manner that they could work with. The International Intern worked on all aspects of the project and also had the chance to go to Germany to visit Expo, and to promote the project. The Haida Gwaii Museum's International Intern helped on the project and spent a month in USA. This year, with the support of Young Canada Works, we have another Intern to promote the exhibit.

Besides the kiosk at Expo, the project partners decided to display Haida and Inuit artifacts. CHIN selected a curator for this aspect. OMVC decided to select objects from the community instead of from museum collections. Eight people loaned their beautiful works of art to display in the Canada Pavilion for the duration of Expo. (Art works exhibited during the World's Fair can be viewed on-line at

Project partners decided that a monumental piece of artwork would make a great impression and draw people to our kiosk. With the financial support of local organizations, OMVC commissioned a totem pole to be carved. The totem pole ties in with the Repatriation story in the website because it represents the Haida clans and the butterfly extensions will represent the Haida ancestral remains that may never return to Haida Gwaii. The "Migration Home" pole will be raised in Old Massett this year.

Before the Canada Pavilion opened, the Haida were invited to send two representatives to a press conference when the pole was raised in the pavilion. Lucille and an intern traveled to Germany to celebrate the pole raising.

It is Haida tradition to celebrate our successes with song and dance. Following this tradition, a group of six Haidas, including the carver of the pole, two elders and other project partners went to Expo to share our songs and dances. The three-week visit to Germany included a weeklong visit to Expo2000 and visits to German museums holding historic Haida collections.

Towards the completion of the website, the project partners created a promotional bookmark. These were distributed at Expo, and each project partner continues to distribute them. This has been a great resource to OMVC, who is continuously asked by non-Haida teachers, students and researchers for information on the Haida.


The biggest challenge was the distance between the project partners who were scattered throughout Canada. The partners met together only once. In a sense, this project was "virtual" in communication.

A challenge all partners faced was finding the funds for all aspects of the projects.

Another challenge we all faced was to make the product flow as if it was compiled by a small group of people rather than by two content providers and two media companies from the opposite ends of Canada.

For the Haida partners, there were a few challenges. Our first challenge was to interpret the Expo themes and make them our own. Since the storyboards had to be approved by the OMVC Cultural Committee and CHIN, we had to ensure they were happy with the style, content and message that we were presenting.

The Internet capabilities on Haida Gwaii are limited; therefore we constantly had to play "catch-up" with the off-island partners.

The last challenge the Haida team faced was our desire to represent ourselves beyond the World Wide Web. We had to obtain an invitation and then the funds to send a delegation to Expo. We took on extra work to ensure that the objects collected for the pavilion represented us well and we fundraised to have a totem pole commissioned.

Bridging Worlds: A New Media Producer's Perspective,

Sylvia Grace Borda, Media-Stop, Vancouver, BC

Interestingly, the concept and structure of the "Our World -- Our Way of Life" website was oddly similar to a project initiated by the German born anthropologist Franz Boas, Collections Manager at the Field Museum of Natural History, 1892-1896 and a main intellectual force behind the Chicago World's Fair of 1893. Boas stated "the main object of ethnological collections should be the dissemination of the fact that civilization is not something absolute, but that it is relative, and that our ideas and conceptions are true only as so far as civilization goes" (Jacknis 1985). Indeed this concept became an underlying concern for myself as a media producer to profile the Haida in contemporaneous terms relative to time, place and circumstance.

As part of his management of the anthropological collections for the 1893 World's Fair, Boas included "life groups' or living dioramas of Inuit and Nuuchanulth peoples. Sadly these people became public curiosities and by the close of the Chicago World's Fair, the understanding of a culture through this contextualization came at a heavy price for the native participants. Both the Nuuchanulth and Inuit peoples died shortly after the fair due to poor living conditions and constant public exposure. Lucille and I joked, how a century later such interests hadn't changed. "Our World -- Our Way of Life" was created for a World's Fair and profiled a Northwest First Nations community and featured Inuit peoples in order to disseminate information about contemporary cultures except this time, the materials were being presented by aboriginal voices.

From a cultural studies perspective and a related parallel, Cantwell notes "that 'trade' implies the crossing of frontiers and demands the creation of special zones outside the contexts of family and community in which people otherwise insulated from one another may come together for exchange (or in this case the movement of people across the internet). Typically the marketplace occurs at the crossing points between two worlds."

At cross-roads

It is this crossing point between two worlds that best describes the intent behind the 'Our World -- Our Way of Life' project. In this crossing, however, there is also an inherent delicacy in the world of the web and cultural representation. The interpretation of material on-line is often without a fixed point of reference and the reader becomes lost between different allegorical poles. In the remaining part of my presentation, I will discuss how I utilised new media methodologies to preserve both meaning and visual integrity and how I adopted strategies to complement and offset interpretive imbalances.

Firstly, I must re-iterate that all the content hosted on the Haida portion of "Our World- Our Way of Life" website ( were provided by Haida colleagues, belong to the Haida community, and are owned (copyrighted) by Haida. I am also grateful to the Haida and the Canadian Heritage Information Network ( for agreeing to speak about this collaborative endeavour so openly.

The working parameters of the project were well defined by Canadian Heritage Information Network in association with Haida partners-- minimum standards were set to accommodate low end users. For example, no web page should have any potential rate of failure with Browers 3.0 and up; fast loadability, and page alignment should accommodate users with 800 x 600 pixel wide screens.

All of the Haida webpage layout is set to be both minimized and expandable, thus allowing users the possibility of accessing the information irregardless of screen size. Further to these factors the versatility of the website design was stressed to be both readable on Internet Explorer and Netscape; and additionally to be compatible on Mac and PC platforms.

Other design factors which guided the development of the Haida website project were related directly to the end venue, The World's Fair. For every World's Exposition there is a set of themes that Pavilion organizer's must adhere to. Out of the ten possible themes available to Expo2000, Canadian fair organizers selected to focus on economic sustainability, renewable resources and water to be the main themes for the Canadian Pavilion and participant groups. In the development of the Haida website, Haida First Nations define sustainability to include both economic and cultural resources as illustrated by stories, dance, song, and repatriation activities amongst other events.

The uniqueness of working on the project stems from its multi-tier levels. Firstly -- Old Massett Village Council's Economic Development and Heritage Resources Office (OMVC) had both a different dynamic and direction than a museum -- its resources are its own peoples and community. Objects, stories, dance and song from community members formed the curatorial content. At a second level, Haida had full control of content arrangement in the new media design. In managing the new media design of the Haida "Our World -- Our Way of Life" website, I worked collaboratively under the direction of the Haida-- particularly with OMVC in the Queen Charlotte Islands or, otherwise known by their native name, Haida Gwaii.

As the new media manager of the Haida content, I was responsible to review and access materials for the development of the "Our World- Our Way of Life" website and kiosk interactives. From a project management perspective, the work accomplished by Haida and Media-stop, I am pleased to say, appears seamless in its layout despite the fact that we worked virtually, producing a product for a virtual environment!

Hadia Gwaii is about 700 km away from Vancouver -- and accessible by a land ferry at Prince Rupert or by flight carriers from Vancouver. The cost of travel to and from Haida Gwaii to Vancouver can be as high as $700 Canadian, and availability is not always guaranteed due to adverse storms that can plague the islands especially during the autumn and winter months. For nearly four months -- I only knew my Northwest partners by their voices on the telephone. Of course, when we finally met we all roared with laughter -- it was thought that I was a tall blonde.

Lucille Bell and Nathalie Macfarlane were responsible for the forwarding of texts and a library of images for page layout on an on-going basis throughout the media development of the website. All content materials from the Haida colleagues arrived at Media-stop via post, couriers, faxes, and/or by the Haida community travelling to and from Haida Gwaii. Content layout was discussed at length via telephone conference calls and by an electronic discussion list which were supported by CHIN. We also exchanged storyboards, faxed each other QuarkXpress documents, and importantly used the web as a staging post for the various production stages of the project and mounted numerous draft web pages.

The final version of the site was quite extensive and will be mentioned here in brief, before the finer details of the site are discussed. Due to the resulting size of the site and in order to stream users effectively, it was decided that the website be arranged using a two page entry gateway. The main entry page ( allows users to make a language choice. The splash page introduces the title in three languages with words of welcome in each respective language to encourage users to move the mouse towards the hotlinked text -- German (the language of the Expo host country), French and English (the two official languages of Canada) are included.

Once a title or language group has been selected, the viewer enters a second page which lists the names of the two aboriginal communities represented. Here the user can explore an interactive map highlighting the geographical location of the two groups, Haida and Inuit. The page is also framed at the base with a statement describing the purpose of the virtual exhibition.

When the Haida drop-down selection menu is activated from the map or second entry level page -- the viewer moves directly into the content/descriptive rich pages. In total, the English version of the Haida content represents well over 80 web pages. To accommodate the amount of materials to be presented on the website under the sustainability and water related themes, Haida partners divided the content into additional themed sections.

These sections became the labels or tags that divide the content navigational bar. Within each thematic section, sub-topics of information also reside. These sub-topics become the foundation to a secondary navigational system, allowing the viewer the possibility to skip to other areas of interest within a given topic without losing the continuity of the information and/or having to advance page by page to materials.

The use of a frameset permits the user to access information much more quickly than toggling between the second entry page and content related sections. Likewise, the incorporation of a frameset to hold the main navigation maintains both visual continuity throughout the site, as well as ensuring fast loading since the images are already held in a cache from page to page.

In building a Haida presence on the web, the ability of non-Haida viewers to interact and engage with the on-line materials was a design imperative. Small details became the signature of the website; whereas, Haida content directed the design of the website, creative solutions gave it a 'soul'.

Some examples are provided below. For instance, texts were written using a first person narrative and included references to Haida names. Given my own criteria to enable a large audience to access and interpret the information, I decided all Haida terms would be highlighted differently from the main body text; thereby, establishing a visual continuity throughout the site, as well as adding emphasis to these terms.

With the segmentation of each topical section into self- contained pages, it was necessary to create additional pagination which incorporated navigational arrows to accommodate these new pages. To personify or 'brand' the site, as being Haida, Haida hands were used as navigational guides which allow viewers to move back and forward through the content.

It was also decided to make use of roll-overs which could provide viewers the opportunity to see details and/or alternate views/functions of objects and/or depicted scenes. This functional element was effectively used in the Art section, for example, to show a transformation mask which the user can literally 'transform' with a move of the cursor over the image. The roll-over action emulates the operation of the mask, and thus remains more true to its on-line interpretation than the placement of two images side by side.

( see page 3/ 3 of Art: What is Haida Art? )

The functionality of the rollovers further produced an added value product in terms of accessibility. These interactive images were created as 'gifs' and the file size, therefore, was kept small for quicker uploading, and copyright infringements had been removed with the use of low resolutions. Each set of images displayed on the main content pages was complemented by an image gallery. The image gallery contained the full captions and other related data so that the user could drill down for more information. The gallery also prevented the main content page from being cluttered from excessive text.

Historical slide lantern images incorporated in the Fishing section were hand-colored to mimic hand-tinted photographs and postcards of the time and to be more distinctive from the main design elements. To maintain the integrity of the original visual images, these altered scenes are presented in round portals -- paralleling the theme's section: fishing and at sea. Hand-colored images are linked to gallery pages where full archive descriptions of the unaltered image and catalogue numbers can be referred to by the viewer.


To contextualize content rich pages, frame based windows where a viewer can scroll across an enlarged image were incorporated. In Raven and the First Men -- an origins story unfolds. The story mentions local Haida Gwaii locales, and provides quotes from Haida artist, Bill Reid who translated the origins story into an impressive Cedar sculpture. Both a Haida map and Reid's 'First Men and Raven' sculpture are self-contained on the content page as scrollable boxes. Users can move horizontally and vertically within the frame to see details of Haida Gwaii and/or view-up close the workmanship of Reid's sculpture. Again this frameset, like the zoomable roll-overs, permits the user to learn and absorb Haida culture in a more intimate manner and literally lets the story move like a narrative.

Haida contemporary culture is best embodied in the Repatriation and Oral culture sections of the website. Quite contrary to a Western perspective and definition of repatriation in relationship to the material world-- this section focuses on community, elders, and people rather than on objects. Lucille had contributed more images for this section than any other -- and from reviewing the pictures -- it became clear that repatriation, like the accompanying text, is about family. For a media designer, where image quality and focus are central -- I gained a new appreciation of the importance of keeping the layout simple when the content itself should guide the viewer. With this in mind, the arrangement of the section was kept quite linear and the images were arranged to evoke a family album or scrapbook.

A different experience awaits the web visitor in The Oral culture section which includes the Haida calendar, and a children's story, The First Totem Pole. The calendar is designed like an ethnographer's table. Framed above the table in a cameo photograph is an elder Haida woman, Mary Swanson, who is also the narrator and voice of the Haida calendar months.

A Haida visual motif with an adjacent 'sound' icon denotes the hot-spot where a sound clip can be accessed. From a media perspective, editing the sound clip, maintaining the vocal quality, removing background sounds, and producing a quick uploading and universally accessible sound clip made this section a challenge but a phenomenal addition. To hear a cultural language -- makes that culture much more real to the visitor. In this way it was hoped that certain interactive elements would enable a user's visit to be more innovative than that experienced simply by reading about a cultural group.

The First Totem Story is illustrated with Haida drawings and is complemented by photographic images which follow the real-life raising of a totem pole. Thus the two sets of images work in parallel as the story unfolds from the past accompanied by a story of the here and now. For added visual effect, I utilised an image of a Haida raven to 'fly' across the screen and to guide the reader through the passage of the story narrative to the 'present' day.

In several aspects this dual representation of the past and present encapsulates the dichotomy of cultural representation on the web. Such representation is either shown as a past or a contemporary allegory and usually without any point of reference. The ability for the viewer to scroll horizontally across the screen was utilised in the same way that museum exhibition designers use 'the hide and seek' methods to display objects. The images held off screen advance the story and give an anticipation as to what might follow, allowing the imagination to try and second guess what will indeed unfold in the story narrative.

From my experience on the project and from a new media perspective, I believe cultural representation is largely tied in with 'voice' and the content, above all, should encapsulate this voice. Content should also be equal to the design in facilitating the project. This refers to an essential need for an infusion of new methodologies to produce media sites by keeping an open and sustained dialogue with content providers and by maintaining an observational and instinctive approach.

Lastly the structural considerations of a website are the foundations in the formation of a dynamic and functional website. New media should form a complement and a means by which the content like its own creation guides the visitor into a unique ways of investigation and learning. In fact, the challenges are far greater than one would imagine to address this balance because it is easy for a media producer to be lead by the technology and design 'flash' in the hope of capturing the attention of the visitor, however brief.

In conclusion: The benefits - New Approaches Learned

Museum and cultural websites should always be questioned in relationship to their production and methodologies with 'why this approach,' 'what are the benefits,' and "for whom does this address and for which audiences". Electronic media displays must preserve the economy or the inherent integrity behind each visual and each concept. Without content and design integrity resulting materials placed on the web float like a designer label or banner ad.

We believe the rewards in media design and content provision are equal to the challenges for sponsors, content providers, media producers and visitor audiences in developing a site that endeavours to remain 'true' to its voice and subject. We hope that the website 'Our World -- Our Way of Life' will prove to be a model of excellence, particularly in the areas of collaboration and communication without which the site would not have been made possible. Our many thanks to all who have graciously donated their time, feedback, and energies in making this endeavour and presentation feasible.


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Cantwell, Robert Feasts of Unnaming: Folk Festivals and the representation of Folklife. Consulted January 2001 see

Jacknis, Ira (1985) Franz Boas and Exhibits: On the limitations of the Museum Method of Anthropology. In George W Stocking (ed.) Objects and Others: essays on Museums and Material Culture. Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin.

Slater, Don. (1995) Domestic photography and digital culture. In Martin Lister (ed.) The photographic Image in Digital Culture. London: Routledge .

Rydell, Robert W. (1993) World of Fairs: The Century-Of-Progress Expositions, University of Chicago Press.