Electronic Records Research 1997: Resource Materials

Compilation Copyright, Archives & Museum Informatics 1998
Article Copyright, Author

Bibliography on Electronic Records

Technology: Systems Design, Standards, and New Developments

Andersson, Ulf. SESAM: Philosophy and Rules Concerning Electronic Archives and Authenticity. Sweden: ASTRA, 28 February 1996.
Sweden's largest pharmaceutical firm, ASTRA adopted the task of investigating methods for dealing with electronic laboratory notebooks. The result of this effort was the defining of both a user vision and a technical vision for the development of IT guidelines for electronically stored information.

Balfour, Fiona, and Vivian Lau. "The Business Case for New Systems - Buy or Build: Design Issues and Purchase Issues." Records Management and Computer Conference, Sydney, Australia, 4 June 1993.
(Abstract provided).
Investments in information technology are increasingly strategic, and are focused on the improvement in the business performance attributed by the new information system. Two models have been suggested as useful guidelines for justification of new systems. A general rule when deciding whether to buy or build a new system is to buy commercially packaged software for commodity systems that do not provide any strategic advantage to the company. Specialized information technology staff will be focused on developing systems that will provide the company with strategic advantage and competitive edge. A key criteria is understanding business requirements and assessing these against the available investment options; buying or building is a decision which should be made from a total economic and business perspective.

Brown, Ronald H. National Information Infrastructure -- Progress Report, September 1993-1994, NII, Washington, DC, September 1994.
(ADVANCE COPY -- Abstract taken from introduction).
This report summarizes the Clinton Administration's efforts to fulfill the principles and goals set forth last September. It documents the progress made to date in meeting the three-phase NII initiative. It also summarizes actions by Federal independent agencies that have been consistent with these goals. It is organized in a way that make the Federal agencies in the public-private NII partnership fully accountable to the commitments made in the "Agenda for Action" (a report released by the White House in September 1993).

Brumm, Eugenia K. "Records Management: The Basis for Successful ISO 9000 Compliance." Document Management (November 1994): 12-14.
Brumm examines the ISO 9000 standards in terms of its being a records-based compliance system. As such, the author points out that "organizations are finding that successful assessment for ISO 9000 compliance depends on how well their records are managed and whether or not components of Records Management are included in their quality operations." [12] The author goes on to examine the role of records in assuring the quality of a product that claims to comply to ISO 9000 standards.

Cain, Piers. "Data Warehouses as Producers of Archival Records." Journal of the Society of Archivists 16, #2 (1995): 167-171.
This paper offers an overview of the concept of data warehouses and provides insights into the implications that data warehousing has on archival functions. The author also raises the question of whether or not data warehouses should be considered a record. Cain concludes by pointing out that data warehouses reflect "a new departure in the thinking of information technologists (independently of archival tradition), towards the development of systems which have record-like characteristics." [p.170]

Cleland, Matt. "A Strategy for Archival Data." Unpublished Paper. Electronic Records Project Conference, Canberra, Australia, 22 May 1992. Canberra, Australia: Australian Archives, Dept. of Administrative Services, 22 May 1992.
This paper describes the technical feasibility of providing the communications infrastructure necessary to enable an Archives Network.

Clinton, President William J., and Vice President Albert Gore Jr. Technology for America's Economic Growth, A New Direction to Build Economic Strength, Executive Office of the President of the United States, Washington, DC, 22 February 1993.
This document outlines the goals for, and discusses strategies for implementing, the best technology policy that will have the "ability to make a difference in the lives of the American People, to harness technology so that it improves the quality of their lives and the economic strength of our nation." [2] The following goals are set forth: (1) long-term economic growth that creates jobs and protects the environment, (2) making government more efficient and more responsive, and (3) world leadership in basic science, mathematics, and engineering. In addition, several new initiatives for increasing America's economic strength are discussed.

Cross-Industry Working Team. "Electronic Cash, Tokens and Payments in the National Information Infrastructure." 1-17. -- Copies of white papers available from XIWT: http://www.cnri.reston.va.us:3000/XIWT/public.htm.
"The purpose of this paper is to explore how, on tomorrow's networks, universal, fast, and secure payments can be made and received for services, physical goods and information." [1] More specifically, this paper examines the future use of, and subsequent issues emanating from, electronic "tokens" as representations of banks checks, and credit.

Crum, Laurie B. "Digital Evolution: Changing Roles and Challenges for Archivists in the Age of Global Networking." Archival Issues 20, #1 (1995): 51-63.
(Abstract provided).
The combination of the evolving nature of the Internet and new document types and information that are being disseminated throughout the World Wide Web pose significant challenges for any professional engaged in the documentation and study of organizations and human culture. This article serves as an exploratory platform for archival issues related to global computer networking as exemplified by the Internet. A discussion of the parallels and differences of the evolution of the book and hypermedia World Wide Web documents highlights a number of important challenges ofr archivists. The article also offers dynamic, organic definitions of the Internet and hypermedia World Wide Web documents. The author examines important cultural implications and concerns for professionals engaged in the use and documentation of new forms of digital media.

Dataware. Corporate Guide to Optical Publishing, Dataware Technologies, Inc., Cambridge, MA, October 1989.
This report examines the benefits of CD-ROM technology as "a powerful tool that can improve sales performance, lower cost of sales, improve product quality, differentiate products in the marketplace, strengthen third-party distribution channels, and dramatically improve customer service and the customer's perception of support." [1-2].

Eliot, Christian, and The Locator Subgroup of the Interagency Working Group on Public Access. Government Information Locator Service (GILS) DRAFT Report to the Information Infrastructure Task Force, 22 January 1994.
This document explains how "federal agencies are organizing the agency-based GILS as a component of the National Information Infrastructure (NII)." [4] The intent is to submit it as a report to the Information Infrastructure Task Force (IITF) once it has been reviewed by the IITF Committee on Information Policy, the IITF Committee on Telecommunications Policy, the IITF Committee on Applications and Technology, and the United States Advisory Council on the National Information Infrastructure.

The Future of Technology and Work: Research and Policy Issues, eds. Bruce E. Henderson, and David C. Mowery, Washington, DC, 28 October 1987. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1988.
Henderson and Mowery have presented a summary of the proceedings for a conference held in response to a report published in June 1987 by the Panel on Technology and Employment entitled "Technology and Employment: Innovation and Growth in the U.S. Economy." The authors have summarized the main points of, as well as those questions posed during, the four panel discussions, opening and closing remarks, and keynote address that comprised the conference -- the result being, "as the conference made eminently clear, the employment effects of technology require considerable additional research and analysis." [x].

Moiseenko, Tatyana. "Secondary use of Databases Concerning Agriculture and the Peasantry of Contemporary Russia." Electronic Information Resources and Historians: European Perspectives, Eds. Seamus Ross, and Edward Higgs, 281-289. The British Academy, London, 25 June 1926. St Katharinen: Scripta Mercaturae Verlag, 1993.
(Abstract provided).
The paper investigates the possibilities offered by machine-readable datasets on Russian agriculture for historical research. These datasets were created by different types of official and commercial organizations: databases on agriculture of the Central Statistical Board, Ministry of Agriculture, Committee on Land and Land Reform, All-Russian Public Opinion Centre, several commercial agencies, and other institutions. We will discuss the peculiarities of their storage and dissemination, the conditions of database access, data modeling and standardization, the possibilities of information exchange between different groups of users, etc.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). "Intent to Develop a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) for a Data Standard for Record Description Records -- Request for Comments [Docket No. 950124027-5027-01]." Federal Register 60, no. 39 (28 February 1995): 10832-10835.
(Abstract taken from Summary).
NIST is considering the development of a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) for the data elements which, when taken together, will describe information objects of many different kinds, both electronic and non-electronic. The standard would apply to a wide range of information creating software products. It would apply also to document management and object repository software products. Federal agencies would use the standard in specifying many software products used to create documents or information objects (e.g., electronic mail systems), and also when specifying document or object storage and management software products. This notice uses the work "record" as a broadly-encompassing term to include "documents" and "objects," regardless of media or application.

Scalera, Nicholas J. "Public-Key Encryption and the Clipper Chip: Implications for the Archival Administration of Electronic Records." Archival Issues 20, #1 (1995): 65-78.
(Abstract provided).
The advent of available, inexpensive powerful encryption software based on the virutally "uncrackable" RSA algorithms, coupled with the Clinton administration's response in the form of the Clipper Chip proposal, has produced a heated public debate which extends far beyond technical issues to the very core of the constitutional rights and freedoms of American citizens. The ability which this technology offers to private citizens (or to governments, businesses, and other institutions) of encrypting digitally communicated materials, with privacy protection unassailable by even the most sophisticated code-breaking supercomputers of the National Security Agency, present both serious threats and challenging opportunities to archivists already struggling with the management of electronic records. Thus, it is necessary for archivists to become aware of the nature and development of this powerful form of encryption, the government's response through the Clipper Chip proposal, and the associated issues of individual privacy and public security. Moreover, archivists should consider how encryption might be employed to facilitate the archival management of electronic records.

Shapiro, Norman Z., and Robert H. Anderson. Toward an Ethics and Etiquette for Electronic Mail, The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, July 1985.
The authors point out two primary elements users of electronic mail must recognize: 1) the ease with which a message can be misinterpreted and 2) the inability to control who will have access to the message. In response to these, Shapiro and Anderson discuss the ethics and etiquette of electronic communication. "Ethics because certain behavior in dealing with electronic mail have useful or adverse effects on society as a whole and its members; etiquette because certain standard social norms must be reinterpreted and extended to cover this quite novel medium." [3].

Spring, Michael B. "Achieving Productivity in Electronic Publishing." First International Symposium on Electronic Editing and Publishing, Madrid, Spain, 9 June 1988.
(Abstract provided).
This paper addresses the question of achieving productivity in publishing activities using electronic tools. It begins with a brief review of the evolution of electronic publishing, with reflections on parallels in the development of traditional mass printing, and traces more recent work on multimedia and distributed document composition and production. Three questions are addressed in the paper. First, what is the problem we are attempting to address? There is support for a paradigm in the field from text processing to document processing with more attention being paid to holistic treatment of documents. Second, is computer technology amenable to document processing? Historically, computers have been designed and geared to the processing of numerical information in structured form. We need to ask how the technology, or at very least our window on it, needs to change to be consonant with the tasks of document processing. Third is the environment in which this processing takes place appropriate for the technology? More simply put, the office is an environment that does not lend itself easily to the introduction of computing or more broadly to change. Like any social system, our work environments are sub-culture that are to some degree self-perpetuating. The concluding segment of the paper addresses steps that may be taken in the workplace to introduce technology in a way that improves the changes of increasing productivity.

United States Office of the Vice President. Reengineering Through Information Technology - Part I, U.S. Office of the Vice President, Washington, DC, September 1993.
This report is one example of the Clinton Administration's commitment to its future goal of creating an "electronic government." President Clinton and Vice President Gore envision an electronic government that "overcomes the barriers of time and distance to perform the business of government and give people public information and services when and where they want them." [2] The primary function of this report is to demonstrate the vital role information technology plays in realizing their vision by outlining a three part agenda to: (1) Strengthen Leadership in Information Technology, (2) Implement Electronic Government, and (3) Establish Support Mechanisms for Electronic Government.

Zabback, P., H. B. Paul, and U. Deppisch. "Office Documents on a Database Kernel: Filing, Retrieval, and Archiving." ACM (1990): 261-270.
(Abstract provided).
One of the main components of integrated office systems is the large central filing system. It efficiently stores, retrieves, and searches office documents containing text, images, graphics, data, and voice. The authors propose to implement a filing system on top of the Darmstadt database system (DASDBS), which is designed as a data management kernel for both standard and non-standard applications. This paper investigates the choice of appropriate storage structures for the filing system objects and the realization of the system by using the kernel. Furthermore we discuss the efficient retrieval support of office objects by signatures and introduce a new archival approach by using storage media like optical disks.

Zimmerman, Ann. "Partnerships and Opportunities: The Archival Management of Geographic Information Systems." Archival Issues 20, #1 (1995): 23-38.
(Abstract provided).
This article provides an overview of geographic information systems (GISs) technology and applications. It discusses its implications for archives, including a review of the existing literature. Finally, the article recommends a strategy for managing such systems based on the study of an environmental GIS application in a federal research center and on the vision recently expressed by David Bearman and Margaret Hedstrom. A multi-staged approach to the archival management of GISs is recommended and new partnerships are suggested to aid archivists in the future managment of these systems.

Last Modified: 8/14/96 [kjb]

Bibliography on Electronic Records

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